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Each party to a contract of insurance must communicated to the other, in good faith, all facts within his knowledge which are material to the contract and as to which he makes no warranty, and which the other has not the means of ascertaining. Nothing contained in this section nor in the provision of paragraph (b) of the preceding section, relating to incontestability, shall be construed as prohibiting the life insurance company from placing in its industrial life policies provisions limiting its liability with respect to: (1) death resulting from aviation other than as a fare-paying passenger on a regularly scheduled route between definitely established airports; and (2) military or naval service: That if the liability of the company is limited as herein provided, such liability shall in no event be fixed at an amount less than the reserve on the policy (excluding the reserve for any additional benefits in the event of death by accident or accidental means or for benefits in the event of any type of disability), less any indebtedness on or secured by such policy; nor shall any provision of this section apply to any provision in an industrial life insurance policy for additional benefits in the event of death by accident or accidental means. No foreign insurance company shall be authorized to issue, deliver or sell any variable contract in the Philippines, unless it is likewise authorized to do so by the laws of its domicile. Variable contracts may be issued on the industrial life basis, provided that the pertinent provisions of this Code and of the rules and regulations of the Commissioner governing variable contracts are complied with in connection with such contracts. All amounts received by the company in connection with any such contracts which are required by the terms thereof, to be collected or applied to one or more designated separate variable accounts shall be placed in such designated account or accounts. An intentional and fraudulent omission, on the part of one insured, to communicate information of matters proving or tending to prove the falsity of a warranty, entitles the insurer to rescind. The Commissioner may promulgate rules and regulations governing such extensions for the purpose of preventing such violations and may by such rules and regulations dispense with the requirement of written approval by him in the case of extension in compliance with such rules and regulations. The foregoing provisions shall not apply to policies issued or granted pursuant to the non-forfeiture provisions prescribed in provisions of paragraphs (f) and (i) of this section, nor shall provisions of paragraphs (f), (g), (h), and (i) hereof be required in term insurance of twenty years or less but such term policies shall specify the mortality table, rate of interest, and method of computing reserves.(a) A provision that gives the insurer the right to declare the policy void because the insured has had any disease or ailment, whether specified or not, or because the insured has received institutional, hospital, medical or surgical treatment or attention, except a provision which gives the insurer the right to declare the policy void if the insured has, within two years prior to the issuance of the policy, received institutional hospital, medical or surgical treatment or attention and if the insured or the claimant under the policy fails to show that the condition occasioning such treatment or attention was not of a serious nature or was not material to the risk;(b) A provision that gives the insurer the right to declare the policy void because the insured has been rejected for insurance, unless such right be conditioned upon a showing by the insurer that knowledge of such rejection would have led to a refusal by the insurer to make such contract;(c) A provision that allows the company to pay the proceeds of the policy at the death of the insured to any person other than the named beneficiary, except in accordance with a standard provision as specified under the provisions of paragraph (m) of the preceding section;(e) A provision that specifies any mode of settlement at maturity of less value than the amount insured by the policy plus dividend additions, if any, less any indebtedness to the company on the policy and less any premium that may by the terms of the policy be deducted, payments to be made in accordance with the terms of the policy. (1) No insurance company authorized to transact business in the Philippines shall issue, deliver, sell or use any variable contract in the Philippines, unless and until such company shall have satisfied the Commissioner that its financial and general condition and its methods of operations, including the issue and sale of variable contracts, are not and will not be hazardous to the public or to its policy and contract owners. Every life insurance company authorized under the provisions of this Code to issue, deliver, sell or use variable contracts shall, in connection with same, establish one or more separate accounts to be known as separate variable accounts. If a representation is false in a material point, whether affirmative or promissory, the injured party is entitled to rescind the contract from the time when the representation becomes false. Whenever a right to rescind a contract of insurance is given to the insurer by any provision of this chapter, such right must be exercised previous to the commencement of an action on the contract. The policy shall be in printed form which may contain blank spaces; and any word, phrase, clause, mark, sign, symbol, signature, number, or word necessary to complete the contract of insurance shall be written on the blank spaces provided therein. A condition, stipulation, or agreement in any policy of insurance, limiting the time for commencing an action thereunder to a period of less than one year from the time when the cause of action accrues, is void. Any policy written for a term longer than one year or any policy with no fixed expiration date shall be considered as if written for successive policy periods or terms of one year. The results of such valuations shall be reported to the Commissioner on or before the thirtieth day of April of each year accompanied by a sworn statement of the company's actuary certifying to the figures and stating upon what mortality table it is based, upon what rate of interest the valuation is made, and the methods used in arriving at the result obtained. The reserve liability for variable contracts defined in section two hundred thirty-two shall be established in accordance with actuarial procedures that recognize the variable nature of the benefits provided, and shall be approved by the Commissioner. Reinsurance ceded as authorized under the succeeding title shall be deducted in determining the risk retained. No insurance company doing business in the Philippines shall cede all or part of any risks situated in the Philippines by way of reinsurance directly to any foreign insurer not authorized to do business in the Philippines unless such foreign insurer or, if the services of a non-resident broker are utilized, such non-resident broker is represented in the Philippines by a resident agent duly registered with the Commissioner as required in this Code. All insurance companies, both life and non-life, authorized to do business in the Philippines shall cede their excess risks to other companies similarly authorized to do business in the Philippines in such amounts and under such arrangements as would be consistent with sound underwriting practices before they enter into reinsurance arrangements with unauthorized foreign insurers. Should any reinsurance agreement be for any reason cancelled or terminated, the ceding company concerned shall inform the Commissioner in writing of such cancellation or termination within thirty days from the date of such cancellation or termination or from the date notice or information of such cancellation or termination is received by such company as the case may be. If a group life policy is on a plan of insurance other than term, it shall contain a non-forfeiture provision or provisions which in the opinion of the Commissioner is or are equitable to the insured or the policyholder: as used in this Code shall mean that form of life insurance under which the premiums are payable either monthly or oftener, if the face amount of insurance provided in any policy is not more than five hundred times that of the current statutory minimum daily wage in the City of Manila, and if the words An industrial life policy shall not lapse for non-payment of premium if such non-payment was due to the failure of the company to send its representative or agent to the insured at the residence of the insured or at some other place indicated by him for the purpose of collecting such premium: (a) A provision that the insured is entitled to a grace period of four weeks within which the payment of any premium after the first may be made, except that where premiums are payable monthly, the period of grace shall be either one month or thirty days; and that during the period of grace, the policy shall continue in full force, but if during such grace period the policy becomes a claim, then any overdue and unpaid premiums may be deducted from any amount payable under the policy in settlement;(b) A provision that the policy shall be incontestable after it has been in force during the lifetime of the insured for a specified period, not more than two years from its date of issue, except for non-payment of premiums and except for violation of the conditions of the policy relating to naval or military service, or services auxiliary thereto, and except as to provisions relating to benefits in the event of disability as defined in the policy, and those granting additional insurance specifically against death by accident or by accidental means, or to additional insurance against loss of, or loss of use of, specific members of the body;(c) A provision that the policy shall constitute the entire contract between the parties, or if a copy of the application is endorsed upon and attached to the policy when issued, a provision that the policy and the application therefor shall constitute the entire contract between the parties, and in the latter case, a provision that all statements made by the insured shall, in the absence of fraud, be deemed representations and not warranties;(d) A provision that if the age of the person insured, or the age of any person, considered in determining the premium, or the benefits accruing under the policy, has been misstated, any amount payable or benefit accruing under the policy shall be such as the premium paid would have purchased at the correct age;(e) A provision that if the policy is a participating policy, the company shall periodically ascertain and apportion any divisible surplus accruing on the policy under the conditions specified therein;(f) A provision that in the event of default in premium payments after three full years' premiums have been paid, the policy shall be converted into a stipulated form of insurance, and that in the event of default in premium payments after five full years' premiums have been paid, a specified cash surrender value shall be available, in lieu of the stipulated form of insurance, at the option of the policyholder. No policy of insurance other than life shall be cancelled by the insurer except upon prior notice thereof to the insured, and no notice of cancellation shall be effective unless it is based on the occurrence, after the effective date of the policy, of one or more of the following: Sec. All notices of cancellation mentioned in the preceding section shall be in writing, mailed or delivered to the named insured at the address shown in the policy, and shall state (a) which of the grounds set forth in section sixty-four is relied upon and (b) that, upon written request of the named insured, the insurer will furnish the facts on which the cancellation is based. Any policy written for a term of less than one year shall be considered as if written for a term of one year. Without prejudice to section fifty-one, every express warranty, made at or before the execution of a policy, must be contained in the policy itself, or in another instrument signed by the insured and referred to in the policy as making a part of it. When the preliminary term basis is used, the term insurance shall be limited to the first policy year. The aggregate net value so ascertained of the policies of such company shall be deemed its reserve liability, to provide for which it shall hold funds in secure investments equal to such net value, above all its other liabilities; and it shall be the duty of the Commissioner, after having verified, to such an extent as he may deem necessary, the valuation of all policies in force, to satisfy himself that the company has such amount in safe legal securities after all other debts and claims against it have been provided for. Every domestic life insurance company, conducted on the mutual plan or a plan in which policyholders are by the terms of their policies entitled to share in the profits or surplus shall, on all policies of life insurance heretofore or hereafter issued, under the conditions of which the distribution of surplus is deferred to a fixed or specified time and contingent upon the policy being in force and the insured living at that time, annually ascertain the amount of the surplus to which all such policies as separate class are entitled, and shall annually apportion to such policies as a class the amount of the surplus so ascertained, and carry the amount of such apportioned surplus, plus the actual interest earnings and accretions to such fund, as a distinct and separate liability to such class of policies on and for which the same was accumulated, and no company or any of its officers shall be permitted to use any part of such apportioned surplus fund for any purpose whatsoever other than for the express purpose for which the same was accumulated. Such reserve shall be equal to forty per centum of the gross premiums, less returns and cancellations, received on policies or risks having not more than a year to run, and pro rata on all gross premiums received on policies or risks having more than a year to run: Sec. In addition to its liabilities and reserves on contracts of insurance issued by it, every insurance company shall be charged with the estimated amount of all of its other liabilities, including taxes, expenses and other obligations due or accrued at the date of statement, and including any special reserves required by the Commissioner pursuant to the provisions of this Code. For purposes of this section, the term shall include all properties or risks insured by the same insurer that customarily are considered by non-life company underwriters to be subject to loss or damage from the same occurrence of any hazard insured against. Any insurance company doing business in the Philippines desiring to cede their excess risks to foreign insurance or reinsurance companies not authorized to transact business in the Philippines may do so under the following conditions:(1) Except in facultative reinsurance and excess of loss covers, the full amount of the reserve fund required by law shall be set up in the books of and held by the ceding company for so long as the risk concerned is in force: (2) The reserve fund withheld shall be invested in bonds or other evidences of debt of the Government of the Philippines or its political subdivisions or instrumentalities, or of government-owned or controlled corporations and entities, including the Central Bank, and/or other securities acceptable under section two hundred. Every insurance company authorized to do business in the Philippines shall report to the Commissioner on forms prescribed by him the particulars of reinsurance treaties as of the first day of January of the year following the approval of this Code and shall thereafter similarly report to the Commissioner particulars of any new treaties or changes in existing treaties. The provisions of paragraphs (f) to (j) shall not apply to policies issued to a creditor to insure his debtors. Where different portions of the voyage contemplated by a policy differ in respect to the things requisite to make the ship seaworthy therefor, a warranty of seaworthiness is complied with if, at the commencement of each portion, the ship is seaworthy with reference to that portion. Deposits or amounts recoverable from underwriting associations, syndicates and reinsurance funds, or from any suspended banking institution, to the extent deemed by the Commissioner to be available for the payment of losses and claims and values to be determined by him.9. When the ship becomes unseaworthy during the voyage to which an insurance relates, an unreasonable delay in repairing the defect exonerates the insurer on ship or shipowner's interest from liability from any loss arising therefrom. The Commissioner may prescribe the conditions under which a ceding insurer may be allowed credit, as an asset or as a deduction from loss and unearned premium reserves, for reinsurance recoverable from an insurer not authorized in this country but which presents satisfactory evidence that it meets the applicable standards of solvency required in this country.8. Freightage, in the sense of a policy of marine insurance, signifies all the benefits derived by the owner, either from the chartering of the ship or its employment for the carriage of his own goods or those of others. used above is hereby defined to mean land with permanent building or buildings erected or being erected thereon. No loan by any insurance company on the security of real estate shall be made unless the title to such real estate shall have first been registered in accordance with the existing Land Registration Act, or shall be a Sec. (1) An insurance company may purchase, hold, own and convey such property, real and personal, as may have been mortgaged, pledged, or conveyed to it in good faith in trust for its benefit by reason of money loaned by it in pursuance of the regular business of the company, and such real or personal property as may have been purchased by it at sales under pledges, mortgages or deeds of trust for its benefit on account of money loaned by it; and such real and personal property as may have been conveyed to it by borrowers in satisfaction and discharge of loans made by the company to them: That the issuing, assuming or guaranteeing entity or its predecessors shall not have defaulted in the payment of interest on any of its securities and that during each of any three including the last two of the five fiscal years next preceding the date of acquisition by such insurance company of such bonds, debentures, or other evidences of indebtedness, the net earnings of the issuing, assuming or guaranteeing institution available for its fixed charges, as hereinafter defined, shall have been not less than one and one-quarter times the total of its fixed charges for such year; and , that no life insurance company shall invest in or loan upon the obligations of any one institution in the kinds permitted under this sub-section an amount in excess of twenty-five per centum of the total admitted assets of such insurer as of December thirty-first next preceding the date of such investment.

In the application of the provisions of this Code the fact that no profit is derived from the making of insurance contracts, agreements or transactions or that no separate or direct consideration is received therefor, shall not be deemed conclusive to show that the making thereof does not constitute the doing or transacting of an insurance business. Any minor of the age of eighteen years or more, may, notwithstanding such minority, contract for life, health and accident insurance, with any insurance company duly authorized to do business in the Philippines, provided the insurance is taken on his own life and the beneficiary appointed is the minor's estate or the minor's father, mother, husband, wife, child, brother or sister. Unless the policy otherwise provides, where a mortgagor of property effects insurance in his own name providing that the loss shall be payable to the mortgagee, or assigns a policy of insurance to a mortgagee, the insurance is deemed to be upon the interest of the mortgagor, who does not cease to be a party to the original contract, and any act of his, prior to the loss, which would otherwise avoid the insurance, will have the same effect, although the property is in the hands of the mortgagee, but any act which, under the contract of insurance, is to be performed by the mortgagor, may be performed by the mortgagee therein named, with the same effect as if it had been performed by the mortgagor. In the purchase of common capital stock or other equities, the insurer shall designate to the broker, or to the seller if the purchase is not made through a broker, the specific variable account for which the investment is made. The remuneration of the conservator and other expenses attendant to the conservation shall be borne by the insurance company concerned.

In case of an over-insurance by several insurers, the insured is entitled to a ratable return of the premium, proportioned to the amount by which the aggregate sum insured in all the policies exceeds the insurable value of the thing at risk. The Commissioner may, in connection with any examination or required financial statement of an authorized insurer, require such insurer to furnish him complete financial statements and audited report of the financial condition of any corporation of which the securities are owned wholly or partly by such insurer and may cause an examination to be made of any subsidiary or affiliate of such insurer.(3) The stock of an insurance company shall be valued at the lesser of its market value or its book value as shown by its last approved annual statement or the last report on examination, whichever is more recent.

An agreement not to transfer the claim of the insured against the insurer after the loss has happened, is void if made before the loss except as otherwise provided in the case of life insurance. If the Commissioner finds that in view of the character of investments of any insurer authorized to do business in this country it would be prudent for such insurer to establish a special reserve for possible losses or fluctuations in the values of its investments, he may require such insurer to establish such reserve, reasonable in amount, and may require that such reserve be maintained and reported in any statement or report of the financial condition of such insurer.

The right to information of material facts may be waived, either by the terms of the insurance or by neglect to make inquiry as to such facts, where they are distinctly implied in other facts of which information is communicated. Unless applied for by the insured or owner, any rider, clause, warranty or endorsement issued after the original policy shall be countersigned by the insured or owner, which countersignature shall be taken as his agreement to the contents of such rider, clause, warranty or endorsement.(c) The premium, or if the insurance is of a character where the exact premium is only determinable upon the termination of the contract, a statement of the basis and rates upon which the final premium is to be determined; Sec. Cover notes may be issued to bind insurance temporarily pending the issuance of the policy. When the description of the insured in a policy is so general that it may comprehend any person or any class of persons, only he who can show that it was intended to include him can claim the benefit of the policy. The policy may also provide that no designation or change of beneficiary shall be binding on the insurer until endorsed on the policy by the insurer, and that the insurer may refuse to endorse the name of any proposed beneficiary who does not appear to the insurer to have an insurable interest in the life of the insured.

When a person insured has no personal knowledge of a fact, he may nevertheless repeat information which he has upon the subject, and which he believes to be true, with the explanation that he does so on the information of others; or he may submit the information, in its whole extent, to the insurer; and in neither case is he responsible for its truth, unless it proceeds from an agent of the insured, whose duty it is to give the information. The right to rescind granted by this Code to the insurer is waived by the acceptance of premium payments despite knowledge of the ground for rescission. After a policy of life insurance made payable on the death of the insured shall have been in force during the lifetime of the insured for a period of two years from the date of its issue or of its last reinstatement, the insurer cannot prove that the policy is void ab initio or is rescindible by reason of the fraudulent concealment or misrepresentation of the insured or his agent. Any rider, clause, warranty or endorsement purporting to be part of the contract of insurance and which is pasted or attached to said policy is not binding on the insured, unless the descriptive title or name of the rider, clause, warranty or endorsement is also mentioned and written on the blank spaces provided in the policy. A running policy is one which contemplates successive insurances, and which provides that the object of the policy may be from time to time defined, especially as to the subjects of insurance, by additional statements or indorsements. As to surety risk, deduction shall also be made of the amount assumed by any other company authorized to transact surety business and the value of any security mortgage, pledged, or held subject to the surety's control and for the surety's protection. The resident agent of such unauthorized foreign insurer or non- resident broker shall immediately upon registration furnish the Commissioner with the annual statement of such insurer, or of such company or companies where such broker may place Philippine business as of the year preceding such registration, and annually thereafter as soon as available. The net value of such stipulated form of insurance and the amount of such cash value shall not be less than the reserve on the policy and dividend additions thereto, if any, at the end of the last completed policy year for which premiums shall have been paid (the policy to specify the mortality table, rate of interest and method of valuation adopted to compute such reserve), exclusive of any reserve on disability benefits and accidental death benefits, less an amount not to exceed two and one-half of the maximum amount insured by the policy and dividend additions thereto, if any, at the end of the last completed policy year for which premiums shall have been paid (the policy to specify the mortality table, rate of interest and method of valuation adopted to compute such reserve), exclusive of any reserve on disability benefits and accidental death benefits, less an amount not to exceed two and one-half per centum of the maximum amount insured by the policy and dividend additions thereto, if any, when the issue age is under ten years, and less an amount not to exceed two and one-half of the current amount insured by the policy and dividend additions thereto, if any, if the issue age is ten years or older, and less any existing indebtedness to the company on or secured by the policy;(g) A provision that the policy may be surrendered to the company at its home office within a period of not less than sixty days after the due date of a premium in default for the specified cash value, provided that the insurer may defer payment for not more than six months after the application therefor is made;(h) A table that shows in figures the non-forfeiture benefits available under the policy every year upon default in payment of premiums during at least the first twenty years of the policy, such table to begin with the year in which such values become available, and a provision that the company will furnish upon request an extension of such table beyond the year shown in the policy;(i) A provision that specifies which one of the stipulated forms of insurance provided for under the provision of paragraph (f) of this section shall take effect in the event of the insured's failure, within sixty days from the due date of the premium in default, to notify the insurer in writing as to which one of such forms he has selected;(j) A provision that the policy may be reinstated at any time within two years from the due date of the premium in default unless the cash surrender value has been paid or the period of extended term insurance expired, upon production of evidence of insurability satisfactory to the company and payment of arrears of premiums with interest at a rate not exceeding six per centum per annum payable annually;(m) A space on the front or the back of the policy for the name of the beneficiary designated by the insured with a reservation of the insured's right to designate or change the beneficiary after the issuance of the policy.

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